Ennerdale Bridge is a hamlet in the county of Cumbria. Ennerdale Bridge lies at the confluence of Croasdale Beck and the River Ehen and is on the border of the Lake District National Park that uses both watercourses as its boundary. The nearest town is Cleator Moor to its west. Ennerdale Bridge appear in many versions of the Coast to Coast Walk and is 13 miles (21 km) from its western end.
The name Ennerdale means ‘Anund’s valley’, from ‘Anundar’, genitive of the Old Norse personal name ‘Anundr’/’Qnundr’, and ‘dalr’ ‘valley’, cross-influenced by ‘Ehen’, the name of the local river.
Longmoor Head farmhouse and stable is perhaps the oldest building in Ennerdale. It was built in 1686. The stable is to the north of the farmhouse, which has a rear extension added in the 19th century. The buildings are pebbledashed, and the house has chamfered eaves, and a slate roof with a south coped gable. There are two storeys and three bays. On the front of the house is a gabled porch and casement windows. The rear extension has angle pilasters, a string band, sash windows, and dove openings. Inside are the remains of an inglenook fireplace. The stable has a plank door, a window, and a loft door.
The farmhouse is a Grade II listed building – a grade which is applied to “buildings of national importance and special interest”.
St. Marys Church in Ennerdale was rebuilt, with Norman adornments in 1858. The bell is of pre-Reformation date. The bell bears the inscription “Santa Bega ora pro nobis.”
St. Bega, an Irish abbess, founded a nunnery at St Bees around the middle of the 7th. century which was destroyed by the Danes and re-established as a Benedictine monastery in the 12th. century to be dissolved in its turn in the late 1530’s by order of Henry VIII.
It has been suggested that St. Mary’s bell came from the monastery and a reported examination by a well known bell historian, Ranald Clouston, in 1994 indicated that the 14 inches diameter bell was cast about 1400 by an unknown founder, possibly based in Whicham.
In 1799 William Wordsworth and Coleridge visited Ennerdale and it is reputed that after talking to the then priest about the graves in the old churchyard, Wordsworth was inspired to write his epic poem ‘The Brothers’ in 1800.
Whilst the Parish Chapel which then stood alone in a field “Girt round with a bare ring of mossy wall”, has been replaced, it is tempting to speculate that the churchyard wall so evocatively described by Wordsworth is the same as that which still surrounds the existing churchyard. However Wordsworth’s description of the nearby dramatic landscape near Ennerdale Water remains timeless.
The Brothers – 1800
These Tourists, Heaven preserve us! needs must live
A profitable life: some glance along,
Rapid and gay, as if the earth were air,
And they were butterflies to wheel about
Long as their summer lasted; some, as wise,
Upon the forehead of a jutting crag
Sit perch’d with book and pencil on their knee,
And look and scribble, scribble on and look,
Until a man might travel twelve stout miles,
Or reap an acre of his neighbour’s corn.
But, for that moping son of Idleness
Why can he tarry yonder?—In our church-yard
Is neither epitaph nor monument,
Tomb-stone nor name, only the turf we tread,
And a few natural graves. To Jane, his Wife,
Thus spake the homely Priest of Ennerdale.
It was a July evening, and he sate
Upon the long stone-seat beneath the eaves
Of his old cottage, as it chanced that day,
Employ’d in winter’s work. Upon the stone
His Wife sate near him, teasing matted wool,
While, from the twin cards tooth’d with glittering wire,
He fed the spindle of his youngest child,
Who turn’d her large round wheel in the open air
With back and forward steps. Towards the field
In which the parish chapel stood alone,
Girt round with a bare ring of mossy wall,
While half an hour went by, the Priest had sent
Many a long look of wonder, and at last,
Risen from his seat, beside the snowy ridge
Of carded wool which the old Man had piled
He laid his implements with gentle care,
Each in the other lock’d; and, down the path
Which from his cottage to the church-yard led,
He took his way, impatient to accost
The Stranger, whom he saw still lingering there.
’Twas one well known to him in former days,
A Shepherd-lad: who ere his thirteenth year
Had chang’d his calling, with the mariners
A fellow-mariner, and so had fared
Through twenty seasons; but he had been rear’d
Among the mountains, and he in his heart
Was half a Shepherd on the stormy seas.
Oft in the piping shrouds had Leonard heard
The tones of waterfalls, and inland sounds
Of caves and trees; and when the regular wind
Between the tropics fill’d the steady sail
And blew with the same breath through days and weeks,
Lengthening invisibly its weary line
Along the cloudless main, he, in those hours
Of tiresome indolence would often hang
Over the vessel’s side, and gaze and gaze,
And, while the broad green wave and sparkling foam
Flash’d round him images and hues, that wrought
In union with the employment of his heart,
He, thus by feverish passion overcome,
Even with the organs of his bodily eye,
Below him, in the bosom of the deep
Saw mountains, saw the forms of sheep that graz’d
On verdant hills, with dwellings among trees,
And Shepherds clad in the same country grey
Which he himself had worn.
And now at length,
From perils manifold, with some small wealth
Acquir’d by traffic in the Indian Isles,
To his paternal home he is return’d,
With a determin’d purpose to resume
The life which he liv’d there, both for the sake
Of many darling pleasures, and the love
Which to an only brother he has borne
In all his hardships, since that happy time
When, whether it blew foul or fair, they two
Were brother Shepherds on their native hills.
——They were the last of all their race; and now,
When Leonard had approach’d his home, his heart
Fail’d in him, and, not venturing to inquire
Tidings of one whom he so dearly lov’d,
Towards the church-yard he had turn’d aside,
That, as he knew in what particular spot
His family were laid, he thence might learn
If still his Brother liv’d, or to the file
Another grave was added.—He had found
Another grave, near which a full half hour
He had remain’d, but, as he gaz’d, there grew
Such a confusion in his memory,
That he began to doubt, and he had hopes
That he had seen this heap of turf before,
That it was not another grave, but one,
He had forgotten. He had lost his path,
As up the vale he came that afternoon,
Through fields which once had been well known to him.
And Oh! what joy the recollection now
Sent to his heart! he lifted up his eyes,
And looking round he thought that he perceiv’d
Strange alteration wrought on every side
Among the woods and fields, and that the rocks,
And the eternal hills, themselves were chang’d.
By this the Priest who down the field had come
Unseen by Leonard, at the church-yard gate
Stopp’d short, and thence, at leisure, limb by limb
He scann’d him with a gay complacency.
Aye, thought the Vicar, smiling to himself,
‘Tis one of those who needs must leave the path
Of the world’s business, to go wild alone:
His arms have a perpetual holiday,
The happy man will creep about the fields
Following his fancies by the hour, to bring
Tears down his cheek, or solitary smiles
Into his face, until the setting sun
Write Fool upon his forehead. Planted thus
Beneath a shed that overarch’d the gate
Of this rude church-yard, till the stars appear’d
The good man might have commun’d with himself
But that the Stranger, who had left the grave,
Approach’d; he recogniz’d the Priest at once,
And after greetings interchang’d, and given
By Leonard to the Vicar as to one
Unknown to him, this dialogue ensued.
You live, Sir, in these dales, a quiet life:
Your years make up one peaceful family;
And who would grieve and fret, if, welcome come
And welcome gone, they are so like each other,
They cannot be remember’d. Scarce a funeral
Comes to this church-yard once in eighteen months;
And yet, some changes must take place among you.
And you, who dwell here, even among these rocks
Can trace the finger of mortality,
And see, that with our threescore years and ten
We are not all that perish.——I remember,
For many years ago I pass’d this road,
There was a foot-way all along the fields
By the brook-side—’tis gone—and that dark cleft!
To me it does not seem to wear the face
Which then it had.
Why, Sir, for aught I know,
That chasm is much the same—
But, surely, yonder—
Aye, there indeed, your memory is a friend
That does not play you false.—On that tall pike,
(It is the loneliest place of all these hills)
There were two Springs which bubbled side by side,
As if they had been made that they might be
Companions for each other; ten years back,
Close to those brother fountains, the huge crag
Was rent with lightning—one is dead and gone,
The other, left behind, is flowing still.——
For accidents and changes such as these,
Why we have store of them! a water spout
Will bring down half a mountain; what, a feast
For folks that wander up and down like you,
To see an acre’s breadth of that wide cliff
One roaring cataract—a sharp May storm
Will come with loads of January snow,
And in one night send twenty score of sheep
To feed the ravens, or a Shepherd dies
By some untoward death among the rocks:
The ice breaks up and sweeps away a bridge—
A wood is fell’d:—and then for our own homes!
A child is born or christen’d, a field plough’d,
A daughter sent to service, a web spun,
The old house cloth is deck’d with a new face;
And hence, so far from wanting facts or dates
To chronicle the time, we all have here
A pair of diaries, one serving, Sir,
For the whole dale, and one for each fire-side,
Yours was a stranger’s judgment: for historians
Commend me to these vallies.
Yet your church-yard
Seems, if such freedom may be used with you,
To say that you are heedless of the past.
Here’s neither head nor foot-stone, plate of brass,
Cross-bones or skull, type of our earthly state
Or emblem of our hopes: the dead man’s home
Is but a fellow to that pasture field.
Why there, Sir, is a thought that’s new to me.
The Stone-cutters, ’tis true, might beg their bread
If every English church-yard were like ours:
Yet your conclusion wanders from the truth.
We have no need of names and epitaphs,
We talk about the dead by our fire-sides.
And then for our immortal part, we want
No symbols, Sir, to tell us that plain tale:
The thought of death sits easy on the man
Who has been born and dies among the mountains:
Your dalesmen, then, do in each others thoughts
Possess a kind of second life: no doubt
You, Sir, could help me to the history
Of half these Graves?
With what I’ve witness’d, and with what I’ve heard,
Perhaps I might, and, on a winter’s evening,
If yon were seated at my chimney’s nook
By turning o’er these hillocks one by one,
We two could, travel, Sir, through a strange round,
Yet all in the broad high-way of the world.
Now there’s a grave—your foot is half upon it,
It looks just like the rest, and yet that man
’Tis a common case,
We’ll take another: who is he that lies
Beneath yon ridge, the last of those three graves;—
It touches on that piece of native rock
Left in the church-yard wall.
That’s Walter Ewbank.
He had as white a head and fresh a cheek
As ever were produc’d by youth and age
Engendering in the blood of hale fourscore.
For five long generations had the heart
Of Walter’s forefathers o’erflow’d the bounds
Of their inheritance, that single cottage,
You see it yonder, and those few green fields.
They toil’d and wrought, and still, from sire to son,
Each struggled, and each yielded as before
A little—yet a little—and old Walter,
They left to him the family heart, and land
With other burthens than the crop it bore.
Year after year the old man still preserv’d
A chearful mind, and buffeted with bond,
Interest and mortgages; at last he sank,
And went into his grave before his time.
Poor Walter! whether it was care that spurr’d him
God only knows, but to the very last
He had the lightest foot in Ennerdale:
His pace was never that of an old man:
I almost see him tripping down the path
With his two Grandsons after him—but you,
Unless our Landlord be your host to-night,
Have far to travel, and in these rough paths
Even in the longest day of midsummer—
But these two Orphans!
Orphans! such they were—
Yet not while Walter liv’d—for, though their Parents
Lay buried side by side as now they lie,
The old Man was a father to the boys,
Two fathers in one father: and if tears
Shed, when he talk’d of them where they were not,
And hauntings from the infirmity of love,
Are aught of what makes up a mother’s heart,
This old Man in the day of his old age
Was half a mother to them.—If you weep, Sir,
To hear a stranger talking about strangers,
Heaven bless you when you are among your kindred!
Aye. You may turn that way—it is a grave
Which will bear looking at.
These Boys I hope
They lov’d this good old Man—
They did—and truly,
But that was what we almost overlook’d,
They were such darlings of each other. For
Though from their cradles they had liv’d with Walter,
The only kinsman near them in the house,
Yet he being old, they had much love to spare,
And it all went into each other’s hearts.
Leonard, the elder by just eighteen months,
Was two years taller: ’twas a joy to see,
To hear, to meet them! from their house the School
Was distant three short miles, and in the time
Of storm and thaw, when every water-course
And unbridg’d stream, such as you may have notic’d
Crossing our roads at every hundred steps,
Was swoln into a noisy rivulet,
Would Leonard then, when elder boys perhaps
Remain’d at home, go staggering through the fords
Bearing his Brother on his back.—I’ve seen him,
On windy days, in one of those stray brooks,
Aye, more than once I’ve seen him mid-leg deep,
Their two books lying both on a dry stone
Upon the hither side:—and once I said,
As I remember, looking round these rocks
And hills on which we all of us were born,
That God who made the great book of the world
Would bless such piety—
It may be then—
Never did worthier lads break English bread:
The finest Sunday that the Autumn saw,
With all its mealy clusters of ripe nuts,
Could never keep these boys away from church,
Or tempt them to an hour of sabbath breach.
Leonard and James! I warrant, every corner
Among these rocks and every hollow place
Where foot could come, to one or both of them
Was known as well as to the flowers that grew there.
Like roe-bucks they went bounding o’er the hills:
They play’d like two young ravens on the crags:
Then they could write, aye and speak too, as well
As many of their betters—and for Leonard!
The very night before he went away,
In my own house I put into his hand
A Bible, and I’d wager twenty pounds,
That, if he is alive, he has it yet.
It seems, these Brothers have not liv’d to be
A comfort to each other.—
That they might
Live to that end, is what both old and young
In this our valley all of us have wish’d,
And what, for my part, I have often pray’d:
Then James still is left among you—
‘Tis of the elder Brother I am speaking:
They had an Uncle, he was at that time
A thriving man, and traffick’d on the seas:
And, but for this same Uncle, to this hour
Leonard had never handled rope or shroud.
For the Boy lov’d the life which we lead here;
And, though a very Stripling, twelve years old;
His soul was knit to this his native soil.
But, as I said, old Walter was too weak
To strive with such a torrent; when he died,
The estate and house were sold, and all their sheep,
A pretty flock, and which, for aught I know,
Had clothed the Ewbanks for a thousand years.
Well—all was gone, and they were destitute.
And Leonard, chiefly for his brother’s sake,
Resolv’d to try his fortune on the seas.
‘Tis now twelve years since we had tidings from him.
If there was one among us who had heard
That Leonard Ewbank was come home again,
From the great Gavel, down by Leeza’s Banks,
And down the Enna, far as Egremont,
The day would be a very festival,
And those two bells of ours, which there you see
Hanging in the open air—but, O good Sir!
This is sad talk—they’ll never sound for him
Living or dead—When last we heard of him
He was in slavery among the Moors
Upon the Barbary Coast—’Twas not a little
That would bring down his spirit, and, no doubt,
Before it ended in his death, the Lad
Was sadly cross’d—Poor Leonard! when we parted,
He took me by the hand and said to me,
If ever the day came when he was rich,
He would return, and on his Father’s Land
He would grow old among us.
If that day
Should come, ‘twould needs be a glad day for him;
He would himself, no doubt, be as happy then
As any that should meet him—
You said his kindred all were in their graves,
And that he had one Brother—
That is but
A fellow tale of sorrow. From his youth
James, though not sickly, yet was delicate.
And Leonard being always by his side
Had done so many offices about him,
That, though he was not of a timid nature,
Yet still the spirit of a mountain boy
In him was somewhat check’d, and when his Brother
Was gone to sea and he was left alone
The little colour that he had was soon
Stolen from his cheek, he droop’d, and pin’d and pin’d:
But these are all the graves of full grown men!
Aye, Sir, that pass’d away: we took him to us.
He was the child of all the dale—he liv’d
Three months with one, and six months with another:
And Wanted neither food, nor clothes, nor love,
And many, many happy days were his.
But, whether blithe or sad, ’tis my belief
His absent Brother still was at his heart.
And, when he liv’d beneath our roof, we found
(A practice till this time unknown to him)
That often, rising from his bed at night,
He in his sleep would walk about, and sleeping
He sought his Brother Leonard—You are mov’d!
Forgive me, Sir: before I spoke to you,
I judg’d you most unkindly.
But this youth,
How did he die at last?
One sweet May morning,
It will be twelve years since, when Spring returns,
He had gone forth among the new-dropp’d lambs,
With two or three companions whom it chanc’d
Some further business summon’d to a house
Which stands at the Dale-head. James, tir’d perhaps,
Or from some other cause remain’d behind.
You see yon precipice—it almost looks
Like some vast building made of many crags,
And in the midst is one particular rock
That rises like a column from the vale,
Whence by our Shepherds it is call’d, the Pillar.
James, pointing to its summit, over which
They all had purpos’d to return together,
Inform’d them that he there would wait for them;
They parted, and his comrades pass’d that way
Some two hours after, but they did not find him
At the appointed place, a circumstance
Of which they took no heed: but one of them,
Going by chance, at night, into the house
Which at this time was James’s home, there learn’d
That nobody had seen him all that day:
The morning came, and still, he was unheard of:
The neighbours were alarm’d, and to the Brook
Some went, and some towards the Lake; ere noon
They found him at the foot of that same Rock
Dead, and with mangled limbs. The third day after
I buried him, poor Lad, and there he lies.
And that then is his grave!—Before his death
You said that he saw many happy years?
Aye, that he did—
And all went well with him—
If he had one, the Lad had twenty homes.
And you believe then, that his mind was easy—
Yes, long before he died, he found that time
Is a true friend to sorrow, and unless
His thoughts were turn’d on Leonard’s luckless fortune,
He talk’d about him with a chearful love.
He could not come to an unhallow’d end!
Nay, God forbid! You recollect I mention’d
A habit which disquietude and grief
Had brought upon him, and we all conjectur’d
That, as the day was warm, he had lain down
Upon the grass, and, waiting for his comrades
He there had fallen asleep, that in his sleep
He to the margin of the precipice
Had walk’d, and from the summit had fallen head-long.
And so no doubt he perish’d: at the time,
We guess, that in his hands he must have had
His Shepherd’s staff; for midway in the cliff
It had been caught, and there for many years
It hung—and moulder’d there.
The Priest here ended—
The Stranger would have thank’d him, but he felt
Tears rushing in; both left the spot in silence,
And Leonard, when they reach’d the church-yard gate,
As the Priest lifted up the latch, turn’d round,
And, looking at the grave, he said, “My Brother.”
The Vicar did not hear the words: and now,
Pointing towards the Cottage, he entreated
That Leonard would partake his homely fare:
The other thank’d him with a fervent voice,
But added, that, the evening being calm,
He would pursue his journey. So they parted.
It was not long ere Leonard reach’d a grove
That overhung the road: he there stopp’d short,
And, sitting down beneath the trees, review’d
All that the Priest had said: his early years
Were with him in his heart: his cherish’d hopes,
And thoughts which had been his an hour before,
All press’d on him with such a weight, that now,
This vale, where he had been so happy, seem’d
A place in which he could not bear to live:
So he relinquish’d all his purposes.
He travell’d on to Egremont; and thence,
That night, address’d a letter to the Priest
Reminding him of what had pass’d between them.
And adding, with a hope to be forgiven,
That it was from the weakness of his heart,
He had not dared to tell him, who he was.
This done, he went on shipboard, and is now
A Seaman, a grey headed Mariner.